Research Paper Topics On Hiv/Aids

 


 


Acute Infection


Novitsky V, Prague M, Moyo S, Gaolathe T, Mmalane M, Kadima Yankinda E, Chakalisa U, Lebelonyane R, Khan N, Powis KM, Widenfelt E, Gaseitsiwe S, Dryden-Peterson SL, Pretorius Holme M, De Gruttola V, Bachanas P, Makhema J, Lockman S, Essex M. High HIV-1 RNA among Newly Diagnosed People in Botswana.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Dec 7

Moyo S, Kotokwe KP, Mohammed T, Boleo C, Mupfumi L, Chishala S, Tsalaile L, Bussmann H, Gaseitsiwe S, Musonda R, Makhema J, Baum M, Marlink R, Engelbrecht S, Essex M, Novitsky V. Short Communication: Low False Recent Rate of Limiting Antigen-Avidity Assay Combined with HIV-1 RNA Data in Botswana.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Jan

Moyo S, Vandormael A, Wilkinson E, Engelbrecht S, Gaseitsiwe S, Kotokwe KP, Musonda R, Tanser F, Essex M, Novitsky V, de Oliveira T. Analysis of Viral Diversity in Relation to the Recency of HIV-1C Infection in Botswana. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 23

Moyo S, Kotokwe KP, Mohammed T, Boleo C, Mupfumi L, Chishala S, Tsalaile L, Bussmann H, Gaseitsiwe S, Musonda R, Makhema J, Baum MK, Marlink RG, Engelbrecht S, Essex M, Novitsky V. Low False Recent Rate of Limiting Antigen-Avidity Assay Combined with HIV-1 RNA Data in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Aug 1

Rossenkhan R, MacLeod IJ, Brumme ZL, Magaret C, Sebunya TK, Musonda R, Gashe BA, Novitsky V, Edlefsen P, Essex M. Transmitted / founder HIV-1 subtype C viruses show distinctive signature patterns in Vif, Vpr and Vpu that are under subsequent immune pressure during early infection.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Jun 28

Wu JW, Patterson-Lomba O, Novitsky V, Pagano M. A Generalized Entropy Measure of Within-Host Viral Diversity for Identifying Recent HIV-1 Infections. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Oct

Moyo S, Wilkinson E, Novitsky V, Vandormael A, Gaseitsiwe S, Essex M, Engelbrecht S, de Oliveira T. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics.Viruses. 2015 Oct 23

Liu SH, Erion G, Novitsky V, De Gruttola V. Viral Genetic Linkage Analysis in the Presence of Missing Data.PLoS One. 2015 Aug 24

Laeyendecker, O., Brookmeyer, R., Mullis, C., Donnell, D., Lingappa, J., Celum, C., Baeten, J.M., Campbell, M.S. , Essex, M., de Bruyn, G., Farquhar, C., Quinn, T.C., Eshleman, S. Specificity of four laboratory approaches for cross-sectional HIV incidence determination: Analysis of samples from adults with known non-recent HIV infection from five African countries. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. Jan 29 2012

Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Using HIV viral load to guide treatment-for-prevention interventions. Curr Opin HIV AIDS.  Jan 16 2012

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Baca, J., Margolin, L., McLane, MF., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Essex, M. Evolutionary gamut of in vivo Gag substitutions during early HIV-1 subtype C infection.Virology.  Oct 17 2011

Novitsky, V., Ndung’u, T., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Chonco, F., Makhema, J., De Gruttola, V., Walker, B.D., Essex, M. Extended high viremics: a substantial fraction of individuals maintain high plasma viral RNA levels after acute HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS.2011 Apr 18

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., and Essex, M. Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection.PLoS One. 2011

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Lockman, S., Baum, M., Shapiro, R., Thior, I., Wester, C., Wester, C.W., Ogwu, A., Asmelash, A., Musonda, R., Campa, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Mine, M., Moffat, C., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Marlink, R., Gilbert, P., Seage, G.R. 3rd, DeGruttola, V., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission. PloS One. 2010

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., and Essex, M. Dynamics and Timing of in Vivo Mutations at Gag Residue 242 during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection.Virology. 2010

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Kebaabetswe, L., Greenwald, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Better Control of Early Viral Replication Is Associated with Slower Rate of Elicited Antiviral Antibodies in the Detuned EIA during Primary HIV-1C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2009

Novitsky, V., Lagakos, S., Herzig, M., Bonney, C., Kebaabetswe, L, Rossenkhan, R., Nkwe, D., Margolin, L., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Evolution of Proviral gp120 over the First Year of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. Virology.  2009

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Mlotshwa, B., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Finucane, M., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Wester, C., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Dynamics in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2009

Lockman, S., Creek, T. Acute maternal HIV infection during pregnancy and breast-feeding: substantial risk to infants.J Infect Dis. 2009 Sep

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Wester, C., McDonald, E., Rossenkhan, R., Ketunuti, M., Makhema, J., Seage, G.R, III, and Essex, M. Identification of Primary HIV-1C Infection in Botswana. AIDS Care. 2008

Novitsky, V., Gaolath, T., Woldegabriel, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. A Seronegative Case of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection in Botswana. Clin. Infect. Dis 2007

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AIDS in Children


Balasubramanian R, Fowler MG, Dominguez K, Lockman S, Tookey PA, Huong NNG, Nesheim S, Hughes MD, Lallemant M, Tosswill J, Shaffer N, Sherman G, Palumbo P, Shapiro DE. Time to first positive HIV-1 DNA PCR may differ with antiretroviral regimen in infants infected with non-B subtype HIV-1.AIDS. 2017 Sep 18.

Zash R, Souda S, Leidner J, Ribaudo H, Binda K, Moyo S, Powis KM, Petlo C, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Essex M, Lockman S, Shapiro R. HIV-exposed children account for more than half of 24-month mortality in Botswana.BMC Pediatr. 2016 Jul 21

Zash RM, Ajose-Popoola O, Stordal K, Souda S, Ogwu A, Dryden-Peterson S, Powis K, Lockman S, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Risk factors for mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and unexposed infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in Botswana
J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Dec 23

Dryden-Peterson S, Jayeoba O, Hughes MD, Jibril H, McIntosh K, Modise TA, Asmelash A, Powis KM, Essex M, Shapiro RL, Lockman S. Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis and Risk of Severe Anemia or Severe Neutropenia in HAART-Exposed, HIV-Uninfected Infants. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 23

Brown, B.J., Oladokun, R.E., Osinusi, K., Ochigbo, S., Adewole, I.F., Kanki, P. Disclosure of HIV status to infected children in a Nigerian HIV Care Programme.AIDS Care. 2011 Sept 23

Heidari, S., Mofenson, L.M., Hobbs, C.V., Cotton, M.F., Marlink, R., Katabira, E. Unresolved Antiretroviral Treatment Management Issues in HIV-Infected Children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Dec 1

Matthews, L.T., Ribaudo, H.J., Parekh, N.K., Chen, J.Y., Binda, K., Ogwu, A., Makhema, J., Souda, S., Lockman, S., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L. Birth weight for gestational age norms for a large cohort of infants born to HIV-negative women in Botswana compared with norms for U.S-born black infants.BMC Pediatr. 2011 Dec 16

Parekh, N., Ribaudo, H., Souda, S., Chen, J., Mmalane, M., Powis, K., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Shapiro, R.L. Risk factors for very preterm delivery and delivery of very-small-for-gestational-age infants among HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in Botswana.Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Jul 16

MacLeod, I.J., Rowley, C.F., Essex, M., and Lockman, S. Minor Resistant Variants in Nevirapine-Exposed Infants May Predict Virologic Failure on Nevirapine-Containing ART. J. Clin. Virol. 2010

Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S. Mortality among HIV-exposed infants: the first and final frontier.Clin Infect Dis.2010 Feb 1

Lockman, S., Creek, T. Acute maternal HIV infection during pregnancy and breast-feeding: substantial risk to infants.J Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 1

Patel, K., Hernan, MA., Williams, PL., Seeger, JD., McIntosh, K., Van-Dyke, RB., Seage, GR, 3rd.,Long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of children and adolescents with HIV infection: a 10-year follow-up study.Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008 Feb 15

Patel, K., Hernan, MA., Williams, PL., Seeger, JD., McIntosh, K., Dyke, RB., Seage, GR, 3rd.Long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ cell evolution among children and adolescents infected with HIV: 5 years and counting.Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008 Jun 1

Williams, PL., Van-Dyke, R., Eagle, M., Smith, D., Vincent, C., Ciupak, G., Oleske, J., Seage, GR, 3rd. Association of site-specific and participant-specific factors with retention of children in a long-term pediatric HIV cohort study.Am. J. Epidemiol. 2008 Jun 1

Brogly, SB., Ylitalo, N., Mofenson, LM., Oleske, J., Van-Dyke, R., Crain, MJ., Abzug, MJ., Brady, M., Jean-Philippe, P., Hughes, MD., Seage, GR, 3rd. In utero nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure and signs of possible mitochondrial dysfunction in HIV-uninfected children.AIDS.2007 May 11

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AIDS Pathogenesis


Xie W, Agniel D, Shevchenko A, Malov SV, Svitin A, Cherkasov N, Baum MK, Campa A, Gaseitsiwe S, Bussmann H, Makhema J, Marlink RG, Novitsky V, Lee TH, Cai T, O’Brien SJ, Essex M. Genome-Wide Analyses Reveal Gene Influence on HIV Disease Progression and HIV-1C Acquisition in Southern Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Jan 28

Farahani M, Novitsky V, Wang R, Bussmann H, Moyo S, Musonda RM, Moeti T, Makhema JM, Essex M, Marlink R. Prognostic Value of HIV-1 RNA on CD4 Trajectories and Disease Progression Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Adults in Botswana: A Joint Modeling Analysis.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Jun

Novitsky V, Kühnert D, Moyo S, Widenfelt E, Okui L, Essex M. Phylodynamic analysis of HIV sub-epidemics in Mochudi, Botswana. Epidemics. 2015 Dec

Iketleng T, Moyo S, Gaseitsiwe S, Nyombi BM, Mitchell R, Makhema J, Baum MK, Marlink RG, Essex M, Musonda R. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Chronic Asymptomatic HIV-1 Subtype C Infection as an Indicator of Disease Progression in Botswana: A Retrospective Case Control Study.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Sep 28

Adland E, Paioni P, Thobakgale C, Laker L, Mori L, Muenchhoff M, Csala A, Clapson M, Flynn J, Novelli V, Hurst J, Naidoo V, Shapiro R, Huang KH, Frater J, Prendergast A, Prado JG, Ndung’u T, Walker BD, Carrington M, Jooste P, Goulder PJ. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jun 15

Pramanik Sollerkvist L, Gaseitsiwe S, Mine M, Sebetso G, Mphoyakgosi T, Diphoko T, Essex M, Ehrnst A. Increased CXCR4 use of HIV-1 subtype C identified by population sequencing in patients failing antiretroviral treatment compared with treatment-naïve patients in Botswana.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Nov 8

Lin, N.H., Negusse, D.M., Beroukhim, R., Giguel, F., Lockman, S., Essex, M., and Kuritzkes, D.R.The Design and Validation of a Novel Phenotypic Assay to Determine HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage of Clinical Isolates.J Virol Methods. 2010

Lingappa., J.R., Baeten, J.M., Wald, A., Hughes, J.P., Thomas, K.T., Mujugira, A., Mugo, N., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Steward, G.J., Makehma, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyen, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Kidoguchi, L., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., Corey, L., and Celum, C. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team.Daily aciclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.The Lancet. 2010

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Nkwe, D., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Timing Constraints of in Vivo Gag Mutations during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection.PLoS One. 2009

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Kebaabetswe, L., Greenwald, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Better Control of Early Viral Replication Is Associated with Slower Rate of Elicited Antiviral Antibodies in the Detuned EIA during Primary HIV-1C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2009

Essex, M., and Lu, Y. HIV/AIDS: Lessons from a New Disease Pandemic. In: Emerging Infections in Asia. Lu, Y., Essex, M., and Roberts, B., eds. New York: Springer. 2008

Kuritzkes, DR. HIV-1 subtype as a determinant of disease progression. J. Infect. Dis. 2008 Mar 1

Antelman, G., Kaaya, S., Wei, R., Mbwambo, J., Msamanga, GI., Fawzi, WW., Fawzi, MC.Depressive symptoms increase risk of HIV disease progression and mortality among women in Tanzania. JAIDS. 2007 Apr 1

MacNeil, A., Sankale, JL., Meloni, ST., Sarr, AD., Mboup, S., Kanki, P. Long-term intrapatient viral evolution during HIV-2 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 2007 Mar 1

MacNeil, A., Sankale, JL., Meloni, ST., Sarr, AD., Mboup, S., Kanki, P. Direct evidence of lower viral replication rates in vivo in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than in HIV-1 infection.J. Virol.2007 May

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Behavioral Issues


Ledikwe JH, Ramabu NM, Spees LP, Barnhart S, Ntsuape C, Semo BW, Wirth KE. Early resumption of sexual activity following voluntary medical male circumcision in Botswana: A qualitative study.PLoS One. 2017 Nov 14.

Agaba PA, Meloni ST, Sule HM, Agaba EI, Idoko JA, Kanki PJ. Sexual dysfunction and its determinants among women infected with HIV. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017 Mar 8

Ahmed S, Bärnighausen T, Daniels N, Marlink R, Roberts MJ. How providers influence the implementation of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in Botswana: a qualitative study. Implement Sci. 2016 Feb 11

Mayondi GK, Wirth K, Morroni C, Moyo S, Ajibola G, Diseko M, Sakoi M, Magetse JD, Moabi K, Leidner J, Makhema J, Kammerer B, Lockman S. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2016 Jan

Kathleen E. WirthBazghina-werq Semo, Conrad Ntsuape, Nankie M. Ramabu, Boyce Otlhomile, Rebeca M. Plank, Scott BarnhartJenny H. Ledikwe Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana. AIDS Care. 2016 Jan

Auld AF, Shiraishi RW, Mbofana F, Couto A, Fetogang EB, El-Halabi S, Lebelonyane R, Pilatwe PT, Hamunime N, Okello V, Mutasa-Apollo T, Mugurungi O, Murungu J, Dzangare J, Kwesigabo G, Wabwire-Mangen F, Mulenga M, Hachizovu S, Ettiegne-Traore V, Mohamed F; MSAE, Bashorun A, Nhan do T, Hai NH, Quang TH, Van Onacker JD, Francois K, Robin EG, Desforges G, Farahani M, Kamiru H, Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha H, Ehrenkranz P, Denison JA, Koole O, Tsui S, Torpey K, Mukadi YD, van Praag E, Menten J, Mastro TD, Hamilton CD, Abiri OO, Griswold M, Pierre E, Xavier C, Alfredo C, Jobarteh K, Letebele M, Agolory S, Baughman AL, Mutandi G, Preko P, Ryan C, Ao T, Gonese E, Herman-Roloff A, Ekra KA, Kouakou JS, Odafe S, Onotu D, Dalhatu I, Debem HH, Nguyen DB, Yen le N, Abdul-Quader AS, Pelletier V, Williams SG, Behel S, Bicego G, Swaminathan M, Dokubo EK, Adjorlolo-Johnson G, Marlink R, Lowrance D, Spira T, Colebunders R, Bangsberg D, Zee A, Kaplan J, Ellerbrock TV. Lower Levels of Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Among Men with HIV Compared with Women – 12 Countries, 2002-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Nov 27

Schaan MM, Taylor M, Gungqisa N, Marlink R. Personal views about womanhood amongst women living with HIV in Botswana. Cult Health Sex. 2015 Aug 25

Novitsky V, Bussmann H, Okui L, Logan A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Mmalane M, Lei Q, Holme MP, Makhema J, Lockman S, Degruttola V, Essex M. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015 May 29

Jayeoba, O., Dryden-Peterson, S., Okui, L., Smeaton, L., Magetse, J., Makori, L., Modikwa, V., Mogodi, M., Plank, R., Lockman, S. Acceptability of Male Circumcision Among Adolescent Boys and their Parents, Botswana.AIDS Behav. Mar 25 2011

Kebaabetswe, P., Ndase, P., Mujugira, A., Sekoto, T., Ntshimane, M., Owor, A., Makhema, J., Thior, I., and Essex, M. Perceptions of couple HIV counseling and testing in Botswana: A stakeholder analysis. Patient Educ. Couns. 2010

Plank, R.M., Makhema, J., Kebaabetswe, P., Hussein, F., Leseidi, C., Halperinm D., Bassil, B., Shapiro, R., Lockman, S. Acceptability of infant male circumcision as part of HIV prevention and male reporductive health efforts in Gaborone, Botswana, and surrounding areas.AIDS Behav. Oct 2010

Fisher, JC., Cook, PA., Sam, NE., Kapiga, SH. Patterns of alcohol use, problem drinking, and HIV infection among high-risk African women.Sex. Transm. Dis. Jun 2008

Frosythe S, Bertozzi S, Moatti JP, Marlink R, Luchini S, Kazatchkine M. I. Infoming scale-up and resource allocation: the use of economic analysis. II. Universal Access to HIV Treatment in Developing Countries: Going Beyond the Misinterpretations of the “Cost-effectiveness” Algorithm. III. The Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on households and economies. AIDS. July 2008

Martinez, P., Andia, I., Emenyonu, N., Hahn, J A., Hauff, E., Pepper, L., Bangsberg, DR. Alcohol use, depressive symptoms and the receipt of antiretroviral therapy in southwest Uganda. AIDS-Behav. Jul 2008

Fisher, JC., Bang, H., Kapiga, SH. The association between HIV infection and alcohol use: a systematic review and meta-analysis of African studies.Sex. Transm. Dis. 2007

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Cost-Effectiveness


Ciaranello, A.L., Lockman, S., Freedberg, K.A., Hughes, M., Chu, J., Currier, J., Wood, R., Holmes, C.B., Pillay, S., Conradie, F., McIntyre, J., Losina, E., Walensky, R.P. for the CEPAC-International and OCTANE Investigators. First-line antiretroviral therapy after single-dose nevirapine exposure in South Africa: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the OCTANE trial. AIDS. 2011 Feb 20 

Chigwedere, P. and Essex, M. AIDS Denialism and Public Health Practice. AIDS Behav.  2010 Jan 8

Bussmann, C., Rotz, P., Ndwapi, N., Baxter, D., Bussmann, Hi., Wester, W.C., Ncube, P., Avalos, A., Mine, M., Mabe, E., Burns, P.J., Cardiello, P., Makehma, J., Marlink, R. Strengthening Healthcard Capacity Through a Responsive, Country-Specific, Training Standard: The KITSO AIDS Training Program’s Support of Botswana’s National Antiretroviral Therapy Rollout.The Open AIDS Journal. 2008

Marlink, R., Forsythe, S., Bertozzi, SM., Muirhead, D., Holmes, M., Sturchio, J. Re: This special issue of AIDS–a mix of recent economic analyses and commentary on how best to distill economic insights to improve HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. AIDS.2008 Jul

Marlink, R., Forsythe, S., Bertozzi, SM., Muirhead, D., Holmes, M., Sturchio, J. Informing scale-up and resource allocation: the use of economic analysis. AIDS. 2008 Jul

Marlink, R., Forsythe, S., Bertozzi, SM., Muirhead, D., Holmes, M., Sturchio, J. The economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on households and economies.AIDS. 2008 Jul

Moatti, JP., Marlink, R., Luchini, S., Kazatchkine, M. Universal access to HIV treatment in developing countries: going beyond the misinterpretations of the ‘cost-effectiveness’ algorithm.AIDS. 2008 Jul

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Drug Resistance


Meloni ST, Chaplin B, Idoko J, Agbaji O, Akanmu S, Imade G, Okonkwo P, Murphy RL, Kanki PJ. Drug resistance patterns following pharmacy stock shortage in Nigerian Antiretroviral Treatment Program. AIDS Res Ther. 2017 Oct.

Rowley CF, MacLeod IJ, Maruapula D, Lekoko B, Gaseitsiwe S, Mine M, Essex M. Sharp increase in rates of HIVtransmitted drug resistance at antenatal clinics in Botswana demonstrates the need for routine surveillance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Feb 29

Novitsky V, Zahralban-Steele M, McLane MF, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Gaseitsiwe S, Makhema J, Essex M. Long-Range HIV Genotyping Using Viral RNA and Proviral DNA for Analysis of HIV Drug Resistance and HIV Clustering. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Aug

Shao ER, Kifaro EG, Chilumba IB, Nyombi BM, Moyo S, Gaseitsiwe S, Musonda R, Johannessen A, Kibiki G, Essex M. HIV-1 drug mutations in children from northern Tanzania. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Apr 11

Imade GE, Sagay AS, Chaplin B, Chebu PR, Musa J, Okpokwu J, Hamel D, Pam IC, Agbaji O, Samuels J, Meloni S, Sankalé JL, Okonkwo P, Kanki PJ.Transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naïve pregnant women in north central Nigeria.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Oct 28

Rawizza HE, Chaplin B, Meloni ST, Darin KM, Olaitan O, Scarsi KK, Onwuamah CK, Audu RA, Chebu PR, Imade GE, Okonkwo P, Kanki PJ. Accumulation of Protease Mutations among Patients Failing Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Response to Salvage Therapy in Nigeria. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 17

Souda S, Gaseitsiwe S, Georgette N, Powis K, Moremedi D, Iketleng T, Leidner J, Moffat C, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Moyo S, Mmalane M, Musonda R, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro R. No Clinically Significant Drug Resistance Mutations In HIV-1 subtype C Infected Women After Discontinuation Of NRTI-Based Or PI-Based HAART For PMTCT In Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.2013 Mar 28

Finucane MM, Rowley CF, Paciorek CJ, Essex M, Pagano M. Estimating the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance using pooled samples. Stat Methods Med Res. 2013 Feb 1

Rawizza, H.E., Chaplin, B., Meloni, S.T., Eisen, G., Rao, T., Sankalé, J.L., Dieng-Sarr, A., Agbaj,i O., Onwujekwe, D.I., Gashau, W., Nkado, R., Ekong, E., Okonkwo, P., Murphy, R.L., Kanki, P.J.; for the APIN PEPFAR Team. Immunologic Criteria Are Poor Predictors of Virologic Outcome: Implications for HIV Treatment Monitoring in Resource-Limited Settings. Clin Infect Dis. 2011Dec

Armstrong, K.L., Lee, T.H., Essex, M. The Replicative Fitness Costs of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Drug Resistance Mutations on HIV Subtype C. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011Mar 14

Baeten, J.M., Lingappa, J., Beck., I., Freukel, L., Pepper, G., Wald, A., Fife, K., Were, E., Mugo, N., Sanchez, J., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Kiare, J., Farquhar, C., Corey, L., and Celum, C. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Suppressive Therapy with Acyclovir or Valacyclovir Does Not Select for Specific HIV-1 Resistance in HIV 1/HSV-2 Dually Infected Persons. J. Infect. Dis. 2011 Jan 1

Bussmann, H., de la Hoz Gomez, F., Roels, T.H., Wester, C.W., Bodika, S.M., Moyo, S., Taffa, N., Anderson, M.G., Mine, M., Bile, E.C., Yang, C., Mphoyakgosi, K., Lehotzky, E.A., Mlotshwa, B., Mmelesi, M., Seipone, K., Makhema, M.J., Marlink, R.G., Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: lessons learned from the HIVDR-Threshold Survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. AIDS ResHum Retroviruses.2011 Apr

Rowley, C.F., Boutwell, C.L., Lee, E.J., MacLeod, I.J., Ribaudo, H.J., Essex, M, and Lockman, S.Ultrasensitive Detection of Minor Drug-Resistant Variants for HIV after Nevirapine Exposure Using Allele-Specific PCR: Clinical Significance. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2010

Wester, C.W., Thomas, A.M., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Makhema, J.M., Gaolathe, T., Novitsky, V., Essex, M., DeGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor outcomes among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana.AIDS. 2010

Armstrong, K.L., Lee, TH, and Essex, M. Replicative Capacity Differences of Thymidine Analog Resistance Mutations in Subtype B and C Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1.J. Virol. 2009

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaolathe, T., Avalos, A., Cloutier, S., Ndwapi, N., Holcroft, C., Moffat., H., Dickinson, D., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A., Mine, M. Five-year follow up of genotypic resistance patterns in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients in Botswana after failure of thymidine analogue-based regimens.J. of International AIDS Society. 2009

Assoumou, L., Brun-Vezinet, F., Cozzi-Lepri, A., Kuritzkes, D., Phillips, A., Zolopa, A., Degruttola, V., Miller, V., Costagliola, D. Initiatives for developing and comparing genotype interpretation systems: external validation of existing systems for didanosine against virological response. J. Infect. Dis.2008 Aug 15

Bangsberg, DR. Preventing HIV antiretroviral resistance through better monitoring of treatment adherence.J. Infect. Dis. 2008 May 15

Bangsberg, DR. A paradigm shift to prevent HIV drug resistance.PLoS Med. 2008 May 20

Kuritzkes, DR., Lalama, CM., Ribaudo, HJ., Marcial, M., Meyer, WA, 3rd; Shikuma, C., Johnson,V A., Fiscus, SA., D’Aquila, RT., Schackman, BR., Acosta, EP., Gulick, RM. Preexisting resistance to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors predicts virologic failure of an efavirenz-based regimen in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects.J. Infect. Dis. 2008 Mar 15

Marconi, VC., Sunpath, H., Lu, Z., Gordon, M., Koranteng-Apeagyei, K., Hampton, J., Carpenter, S., Giddy, J., Ross, D., Holst, H., Losina, E., Walker, BD., Kuritzkes, DR. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008 May 15

Parienti, JJ., Das-Douglas, M., Massari, V., Guzman, D., Deeks, SG., Verdon, R., Bangsberg, DR.Not all missed doses are the same: sustained NNRTI treatment interruptions predict HIV rebound at low-to-moderate adherence levels. PLoS ONE. 2008

Rowley, C.F., Boutwell, C.L., Lockman, S., and Essex, M. Improvement in Allele-Specific PCR Assay with the Use of Polymorphism-Specific Primers for the Analysis of Minor Variant Drug Resistance in HIV-1 subtype C.J. Virol. Methods. 2008

Schumi, J., Degruttola, V. Resampling-based analyses of the effects of combinations of HIV genetic mutations on drug susceptibility. Stat. Med. 2008 Oct 15

Tsibris, AM., Sagar, M., Gulick, RM., Su, Z., Hughes, M., Greaves, W., Subramanian,M., Flexner, C., Giguel, F., Leopold, KE., Coakley, E., Kuritzkes, DR. In vivo emergence of vicriviroc resistance in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C-infected subject.J. Virol.  2008 Aug

Yang, Y., Degruttola, V. Resampling-based multiple testing methods with covariate adjustment: application to investigation of antiretroviral drug susceptibility. Biometrics. 2008 Jun

Healy, B., Degruttola, V. Hidden Markov models for settings with interval-censored transition times and uncertain time origin: application to HIV genetic analyses.Biostatistics. Apr 2007

Novitsky, V., Wester, C. W., De Gruttola, V., Bussmann, H., Gaseitsiwe, S., Thomas, A., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., van Widenfelt, E., Marlink, R. G., and Essex, M. The Reverse Transcriptase 67N 70R 215Y Genotype Is the Predominant TAM Pathway Associated with Virologic Failure among HIV Type 1C-Infected Adults Treated with ZDV/ddI-Containing HAART in Southern Africa.AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2007

Ojesina, AI., Mullins, C., Imade, G., Samuels, J., Sankale, JL., Pam, S., Sagay, S., Idoko, J., Kanki, PJ. Characterization of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase mutations in infants infected by mothers who received peripartum nevirapine prophylaxis in Jos, Nigeria.AIDS. Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2007 Dec

Oyugi, J H., Byakika-Tusiime, J, Ragland, K., Laeyendecker, O., Mugerwa, R., Kityo, C., Mugyenyi, P., Quinn, TC., Bangsberg, D R. Treatment interruptions predict resistance in HIV-positive individuals purchasing fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda. AIDS.2007 May 11

Paredes, R., Marconi, VC., Campbell, TB., Kuritzkes, DR. Systematic evaluation of allele-specific real-time PCR for the detection of minor HIV-1 variants with pol and env resistance mutations.J. Virol. Methods. 2007 Dec

Petersen, ML., Wang, Y., van-der-Laan, MJ., Guzman, D., Riley, E., Bangsberg, DR. Pillbox organizers are associated with improved adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression: a marginal structural model analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2007 Oct 1

Brenner, B.G., Oliveira, M., Doualla-Bell, F., Moisi, D.D., Ntemgwa, M., Frankel, F., Essex, M., and Wainberg, M.A. HIV-1 Subtype C Viruses Rapidly Develop K65R Resistance to Tenofovir in Cell Culture. AIDS. 2006

Doualla-Bell, F., Avalos, A., Brenner, B., Gaolathe, T., Mine, M., Gaseitsiwe, S., Oliveira, M., Moisi, D., Ndwapi, N., Moffat, H., Essex, M., and Wainberg, M.A. High Prevalence of the K65R Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Isolates from Infected Patients in Botswana Treated with Didanosine-Based Regimens.Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2006

Doualla-Bell, F., Avalos, A., Gaolathe, T., Mine, M., Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndwapi, N., Novitsky, V., Brenner, B., Oliveira, M., Moisi, D., Moffat, H., Thior, I, Essex, M., and Wainberg, M.A. Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C on Drug Resistance Mutations in Patients from Botswana Failing a Nelfinavir-Containing Regimen. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2006

Maier, M., Bwana, M., Emenyonu, N., Pepper, L., Bangsberg, DR. How to Take HIV antiretroviral medications on time without a watch in rural Uganda.PLoS. Med. 2006 Mar

Mills, EJ., Nachega, JB., Buchan, I., Orbinski, J., Attaran, A., Singh, S., Rachlis, B., Wu, P., Cooper, C., Thabane, L., Wilson, K., Guyatt, GH., Bangsberg, D R. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa and North America: a meta-analysis.JAMA.2006 Aug 9

Ojesina, AI., Sankale, JL., Odaibo, G., Langevin, S., Meloni, ST., Sarr, AD., Olaleye, D., Kanki, PJ.Subtype-specific patterns in HIV Type 1 reverse transcriptase and protease in Oyo State, Nigeria: implications for drug resistance and host response. AIDS. Res. Hum. Retroviruses. Aug 2006

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Envelope of HIV


Novitsky V, Wang R, Rossenkhan R, Moyo S, Essex M. Intra-Host Evolutionary Rates in HIV-1C env and gag during Primary Infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2013 Mar 19

Teeravechyan, S., Essex, M., and Lee, T.H. Conserved Determinants of Enhanced CCR5 Binding in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subtype D Envelope Third Variable Loop. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2010

Teeravechyan, S., Suphaphiphat, P., Essex, M., and Lee, T.H. Relative Concordance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Oligomeric and Monomeric Envelope in CCR 5 Coreceptor Usage.Virology. 2008

Suphaphiphat, P., Essex, M., and Lee, T.H. Mutations in the V3 Stem versus the V3 Crown and C4 Region Have Different Effects on the Binding and Fusion Steps of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gp120 Interaction with the CCR5 Coreceptor.Virology. 2007

Trujillo, J.R., Rogers, R., Molina, R., Dangond, F., McLane, M.F., Essex, M., and Brain, J.Noninfectious Entry of HIV-1 into Peripheral and Brain Macrophages Mediated by the Mannose Receptor.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007

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Epidemiology


Liu SH, Erion G, Novitsky V, De Gruttola V. Viral Genetic Linkage Analysis in the Presence of Missing Data.PLoS One. 2015 Aug 24

Farahani M, Mulinder H, Farahani A, Marlink R. Prevalence and distribution of non-AIDS causes of death among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Feb 10

Wirth KE, Agniel D, Barr CD, Austin MD, DeGruttola V. A composite likelihood approach for estimating HIV prevalence in the presence of spatial variation.Stat Med. 2015 Dec 10

Novitsky V, Bussmann H, Okui L, Logan A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Mmalane M, Lei Q, Holme MP, Makhema J, Lockman S, Degruttola V, Essex M. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015 May 29

Tchetgen EJ, Phiri K, Shapiro R. A Simple Regression-based Approach to Account for Survival Bias in Birth Outcomes Research. Epidemiology. 2015 May 22

Novitsky V, Moyo S, Lei Q, DeGruttola V, Essex M. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Jan 6

Novitsky V, Moyo S, Lei Q, DeGruttola V, Essex M. Impact of Sampling Density on the Extent of HIV Clustering. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Oct 2

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., and Essex, M. Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection.PLoS One. 2011 Feb 11

Lingappa, J.R., Hughes, J.P., Wang, R.S., Baeten, J.M., Celum, C., Gray, G.E., Stevens, W., Donnell, D., Campbell, M.S., Farquhar, C., Essex, M., Mullins, J.I., Coombs, R.W., Rees, H., Corey, L., and Wald, A. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team.Estimating the Impact of Plasma HIV-1 RNA Reductions on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission Risk.PLoS One 2010 Sept 13

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Lockman, S., Baum, M., Shapiro, R., Thior, I., Wester, C., Wester, C.W., Ogwu, A., Asmelash, A., Musonda, R., Campa, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Mine, M., Moffat, C., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Marlink, R., Gilbert, P., Seage, G.R. 3rd, DeGruttola, V., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission. PloS One. 2010

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C Phylodynamics in the Global Epidemic.Viruses. 2010

Msisha, WM., Kapiga, S H., Earls, F J. Subramanian,-S-V. Place matters: multilevel investigation of HIV distribution in Tanzania. AIDS. 2008 Mar 30

Drain, PK., Kupka, R., Msamanga, GI., Urassa, W., Mugusi, F., Fawzi, WW. C-reactive protein independently predicts HIV-related outcomes among women and children in a resource-poor setting.AIDS. 2007 Oct 1

Hamel, DJ., Sankale, JL., Eisen, G., Meloni, ST., Mullins, C., Gueye-Ndiaye, A., Mboup, S., Kanki, PJ. Twenty Years of Prospective Molecular Epidemiology in Senegal: Changes in HIV Diversity.
AIDS. Res. Hum. Retroviruses.  2007 Oct

Larsen, U., Mlay, J., Aboud, S., Ballard, R., Sam, NE., Shao, JF., Kapiga, SH. Design of a community-based study of sexually transmitted infections/HIV and infertility in an urban area of northern Tanzania.Sex. Transm. Dis.  2007 Jan

Sankale, JL., Langevin, S., Odaibo, G., Meloni, ST., Ojesina, AI., Olaleye, D., Kanki, P. The complexity of circulating HIV type 1 strains in Oyo state, Nigeria.AIDS. Res. Hum. Retroviruses.  2007 Aug

Vasan, A., Renjifo, B., Hertzmark, E., Chaplin, B., Msamanga, G., Essex, M., Fawzi, W., and Hunter, D. Different Rates of Disease Progression of HIV Type 1 Infection in Tanzania Based on Infecting Subtype. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2006

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Genetics of Susceptibility to HIV


Xie W, Agniel D, Shevchenko A, Malov SV, Svitin A, Cherkasov N, Baum MK, Campa A, Gaseitsiwe S, Bussmann H, Makhema J, Marlink RG, Novitsky V, Lee TH, Cai T, O’Brien SJ, Essex M. Genome-Wide Analyses Reveal Gene Influence on HIV Disease Progression and HIV-1C Acquisition in Southern Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Jan 28

Payne R, Muenchhoff M, Mann J, Roberts HE, Matthews P, Adland E, Hempenstall A, Huang KH, Brockman M, Brumme Z, Sinclair M, Miura T, Frater J, Essex M, Shapiro R, Walker BD, Ndung’u T, McLean AR, Carlson JM, Goulder PJ. Impact of HLA-driven HIV adaptation on virulence in populations of high HIV seroprevalence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 1

Lingappa, J.R., Petrovski, S., Kahle, E., Fellay, J., Shianna, K., McElrath, M.J., Thomas, K.K., Baeten, J.M., Celum, C., Wald, A., de Bruyn, G., Mullins, J.I., Nakku-Joloba, E., Farquhar, C., Essex, M., Donnell, D., Kiarie, J., Haynes, B., Goldstein, D.; for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team .Genomewide Association Study for Determinants of HIV-1 Acquisition and Viral Set Point in HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples with Quantified Virus Exposure.PLoS One. 2011 Dec 12

Hendrickson, SL., Jacobson, LP., Nelson, GW., Phair, JP., Lautenberger, J., Johnson, RC., Kingsley, L., Margolick, JB., Detels, R., Goedert, JJ., O’Brien, SJ. Host genetic influences on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and AIDS-free survival.JAIDS. 2008 Jul 1

Hutcheson, HB., Lautenberger, JA., Nelson, GW., Pontius, JU., Kessing, BD., Winkler, CA., Smith, MW., Johnson, R., Stephens, R., Phair, J., Goedert, JJ., Donfield, S., O’Brien, SJ. Detecting AIDS restriction genes: from candidate genes to genome-wide association discovery. Vaccine. 2008 Jun 6

An, P., Wang, LH., Hutcheson-Dilks, H., Nelson, G., Donfield, S., Goedert, JJ., Rinaldo, CR., Buchbinder, S., Kirk, G.,D; O’Brien, SJ., Winkler, CA. Regulatory polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A gene, PPIA, accelerate progression to AIDS.PLoS. Pathog. 2007 Jun

Montano, M., Rarick, M., Sebastiani, P., Brinkmann, P., Russell, M., Navis, A., Wester, C., Thior, I., and Essex, M. Gene-Expression Profiling of HIV-1 Infection and Perinatal Transmission in Botswana. Genes Immun. 2006

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(HAART) Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy Treatment


Zash RM, Souda S, Leidner J, Binda K, Hick C, Powis K, Makhema J, Mmalane M, Essex M, Lockman S, Shapiro RL. High Proportion of Deaths Attributable to HIV Among Postpartum Women in Botswana Despite Widespread Uptake of Antiretroviral Therapy. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2017 Jan

Meloni ST, Chang CA, Eisen G, Jolayemi T, Banigbe B, Okonkwo PI, Kanki PJ. Long-Term Outcomes on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large Scale-Up Program in Nigeria.PLoS One. 2016 Oct 20

Moyo S, Mohammed T, Wirth KE, Prague M, Bennett K, Holme MP, Mupfumi L, Sebogodi P, Moraka NO, Boleo C, Maphorisa CN, Seraise B, Gaseitsiwe S, Musonda RM, van Widenfelt E, Powis KM, Gaolathe T, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Makhema JM, Essex M, Lockman S, Novitsky V. Point-of-care Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load Test in Rural African Communities is Feasible and Reliable. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Oct 12.

Currier JS, Lockman S. Making waves: safety and efficacy of ART in women.Lancet HIV. 2016 Sep

Farahani M, Price N, El-Halabi S, Mlaudzi N, Keapoletswe K, Lebelonyane R, Fetogang EB, Chebani T, Kebaabetswe P, Masupe T, Gabaake K, Auld AF, Nkomazana O, Marlink R. Impact of Health System Inputs on Health Outcome: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis of Botswana National Antiretroviral Program (2002-2013). PLoS One. 2016 Aug 4

Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Grinsztejn B, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Chariyalertsak S, Santos BR, Mayer KH, Hoffman IF, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Cottle L, Zhang XC, Makhema J, Mills LA, Panchia R, Faesen S, Eron J, Gallant J, Havlir D, Swindells S, Elharrar V, Burns D, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano DD, Essex M, Hudelson SE, Redd AD, Fleming TR; HPTN 052 Study Team. Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 18

Borges ÁH, Lundh A, Tendal B, Bartlett JA, Clumeck N, Costagliola D, Daar ES, Echeverría P, Gisslén M, Huedo-Medina TB, Hughes MD, Huppler Hullsiek K, Khabo P, Komati S, Kumar P, Lockman S, MacArthur RD, Maggiolo F, Matteelli A, Miro JM, Oka S, Petoumenos K, Puls RL, Riddler SA, Sax PE, Sierra-Madero J, Torti C, Lundgren JD. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- versus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens for initial treatment of HIV infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 18

Farahani M, Price N, El-Halabi S, Mlaudzi N, Keapoletswe K, Lebelonyane R, Fetogang EB, Chebani T, Kebaabetswe P, Masupe T, Gabaake K, Auld A, Nkomazana O, Marlink R. Trends and determinants of survival for over 200 000 patients on antiretroviral treatment in the Botswana National Program: 2002-2013. AIDS. 2015 Dec 3

Auld AF, Shiraishi RW, Mbofana F, Couto A, Fetogang EB, El-Halabi S, Lebelonyane R, Pilatwe PT, Hamunime N, Okello V, Mutasa-Apollo T, Mugurungi O, Murungu J, Dzangare J, Kwesigabo G, Wabwire-Mangen F, Mulenga M, Hachizovu S, Ettiegne-Traore V, Mohamed F; MSAE, Bashorun A, Nhan do T, Hai NH, Quang TH, Van Onacker JD, Francois K, Robin EG, Desforges G, Farahani M, Kamiru H, Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha H, Ehrenkranz P, Denison JA, Koole O, Tsui S, Torpey K, Mukadi YD, van Praag E, Menten J, Mastro TD, Hamilton CD, Abiri OO, Griswold M, Pierre E, Xavier C, Alfredo C, Jobarteh K, Letebele M, Agolory S, Baughman AL, Mutandi G, Preko P, Ryan C, Ao T, Gonese E, Herman-Roloff A, Ekra KA, Kouakou JS, Odafe S, Onotu D, Dalhatu I, Debem HH, Nguyen DB, Yen le N, Abdul-Quader AS, Pelletier V, Williams SG, Behel S, Bicego G, Swaminathan M, Dokubo EK, Adjorlolo-Johnson G, Marlink R, Lowrance D, Spira T, Colebunders R, Bangsberg D, Zee A, Kaplan J, Ellerbrock TV. Lower Levels of Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Among Men with HIV Compared with Women – 12 Countries, 2002-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Nov 27

Scarsi KK, Eisen G, Darin KM, Meloni ST, Rawizza HE, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Agbaji O, Onwujekwe DI, Gashau W, Nkado R, Okonkwo P, Murphy RL, Kanki PJ; Harvard/APIN PEPFAR Team. Superior effectiveness of zidovudine compared to tenofovir when combined with nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in a large Nigerian Cohort.Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 10

Farahani M, Price N, El-Halabi S, Mlaudzi N, Keapoletswe K, Lebelonyane R, Fetogang EB, Chebani T, Kebaabetswe P, Masupe T, Gabaake K, Auld A, Nkomazana O, Marlink R. Variation in attrition at sub-national level: Review of the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment (Masa) program data (2002-2013).Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Oct 20

Abah IO, Akanbi M, Abah ME, Finangwai AI, Dady CW, Falang KD, Ebonyi AO, Okopi JA, Agbaji OO, Sagay AS, Okonkwo P, Idoko JA, Kanki PJ. Incidence and predictors of adverse drug events in an African cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with efavirenz. Germs. 2015 Sep 1

Dryden-Peterson S, Medhin H, Kebabonye-Pusoentsi M, Seage GR 3rd, Suneja G, Kayembe MK, Mmalane M, Rebbeck T, Rider JR, Essex M, Lockman S. Cancer Incidence following Expansion of HIV Treatment in Botswana. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 12

Abah IO, Darin KM, Ebonyi AO, Ugoagwu P, Ojeh VB, Nasir N, Falang KD, Olaitan O, Agbaji O, Idoko J, Kanki P. Patterns and Predictors of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy Modification in HIV-1-Infected Adults in a Large Urban Outpatient Cohort in Nigeria. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2015 Jan 7

Chaplin B, Meloni S, Eisen G, Jolayemi T, Banigbe B, Adeola J, Wen C, Reyes Nieva H, Chang C, Okonkwo P, Kanki P. Scale-up of networked HIV treatment in Nigeria: Creation of an integrated electronic medical records system. Int J Med Inform. 2014 Sep 30

Asmelash A, Zheng Y, Kaloustian KW, Shaffer D, Sawe F, Ogwu A, Salata R, Currier J, Hughes MD, Lockman S. Predictors of suboptimal CD4 response among women achieving virologic suppression in a randomized antiretroviral treatment Trial, Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 17

Farahani M., Vable A., Lebelonyane R., Seipone K., Anderson M., Avalos A., Chadborn T., Tilahun H., Roumis Themba Moeti D., Musuka G., Busang L., Gaolathe T., C S Malefho K., Marlink R.Outcomes of the Botswana national HIV/AIDS treatment programme from 2002 to 2010: a longitudinal analysis. The Lancet Global Health. 2014 Jan

Mwafongo A, Nkanaunena K, Zheng Y, Hogg E, Samaneka W, Mulenga L, Siika A, Currier J, Lockman S, Hughes MD, Hosseinipour M; for the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) A5208 Team.Renal events among women treated with tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with either lopinavir/ritonavir or nevirapine: analysis from the AIDS Clinical Trial Group A5208 trial.AIDS. 2014 Jan 18

Rawizza HE, Chaplin B, Meloni ST, Darin KM, Olaitan O, Scarsi KK, Onwuamah CK, Audu RA, Chebu PR, Imade GE, Okonkwo P, Kanki PJ. Accumulation of Protease Mutations among Patients Failing Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Response to Salvage Therapy in Nigeria. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 17

McDonald B, Moyo S, Gabaitiri L, Gaseitsiwe S, Bussmann H, Koethe JR, Musonda R, Makhema J, Novitsky V, Marlink RG, Wester CW, Essex M. Persistently Elevated Serum Interleukin-6 Predicts Mortality among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Apr 16

Wester CW, Eden SK, Shepherd BE, Bussmann H, Novitsky V, Samuels DC, Hendrickson SL, Winkler CA, O’Brien SJ, Essex M, D’Aquila RT, Degruttola V, Marlink RG. Risk factors for symptomatic hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in botswana: results from a clinical trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Aug 28

Wester, C.W., Stitelman, O.M., Degruttola, V., Bussmann, H., Marlink, R.G., van der Laan, M.J.Effect Modification by Sex and Baseline CD4+ Cell Count Among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Feb 6

Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Using HIV viral load to guide treatment-for-prevention interventions.Curr Opin HIV AIDS. Jan 16 2012

Lockman, S., Sax, P. Treatment-for-prevention: clinical considerations. Curr Opin HIV AIDS.2012 Jan 5

Problem
Twenty years ago, the subject of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which has been found to be the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), would not have been the topic of a major and serious worldwide catastrophe. Twenty years ago, people were not phased by the effects that would be caused by this ever so populating disease, and no one would have ever realized that this disease would not be curable or helped without expensive medicine. Like a simple exponential growth equation, the AIDS virus has increased victim numbers by about forty million all over the world.

AIDS has also shown that it is not discriminating; it has infected all races and all heritages. The AIDS crisis extends far beyond its death toll, because more than seventy percent of the thirty-six million people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. Last year alone, the disease killed 1.5 million people in Africa. One third of these victims are between the ages of ten and twenty-four. The disease has been described as a development crisis; it is profoundly disrupting the economic and social bases of families and entire nations at a rate of infection at 16,000 per day.

Without immediate action, AIDS will surpass the effect of the Black Plague that killed forty million people in the late fourteenth century. It is estimated that only ten percent of the death that this disease will cause has been seen. There are no known cures or affordable vaccines to prevent AIDS; the only option is for a program to prevent further spread of the epidemic, minimize its impact, and provide care and nurture for those affected. The truth is, however, that not all nations have the capability or resources of preventing such catastrophes from happening; interventions must be placed in order for the country of Africa to have this problem diminished. They cannot to do this alone. AIDS is at war with Africa, and in any war, support is needed from allies. Without much needed assistance, Africa may lose this war against not only its people, but also its economy, which could lead to political downfall.

Background
Lessons from history make the problem of the AIDS epidemic more comprehensive. People of different sectors of the world have already relayed to experiences of past epidemics. The rise of the Black Plague, smallpox, cholera, typhoid or typhus, and influenza among a few others, has taught the world of the great threat of infectious diseases. Although these diseases are known to occur, it still remains alarming when that initial threat begins to rise and rise until opportunities to fight against the disease becomes limited. AIDS has reached that point where if immediate action is not administered then chances of stopping the spreading infection will become extinct as will many lives along the road too.

One of the first epidemics of time, the bubonic plague which was also paraphrased as the Black Death, began in 1346. Wiping out more than one-third of the total population in Europe, the Black Death caused blotches or boils on the body that were spread from the bite of a parasitic flea living on the black rat. While the Black Death was the first of these types of catastrophic epidemics, it was not the last. Cholera was a world wide epidemic that infected large parts of the world over seven different periods of time. Cholera is transmitted through infected water and manifests itself as an acute infection of the gastrointestinal tract. With specific reference to the cholera epidemic, one author writes:

Whenever cholera threatened European countries, it quickened social apprehensions. Wherever it appeared, it tested the efficiency and resilience of local administrative structures. It exposed relentlessly political, social, and moral shortcomings. It prompted rumors, suspicions, and, at times, violent social conflicts.

There is no question that an epidemic in these proportions would disrupt the economic and social aspects of a nation, but without a doubt the political economy of the nation would be disrupted. The AIDS crisis is at the point where the disease is destroying any hope for the country of Africa to develop into a prospering state. The origin of AIDS in Africa remains unknown. In one theory it is believed that the disease originated in Haiti and was transported to Africa in the mid 1960s when a large number of Haitians immigrated to Zaire. In another prominent theory, however, it is believed that AIDS originated in Africa by means of a virus similar to HIV found in the African green monkey. According to this theory, the precursor virus may have moved from subhuman primates to people relatively recently, or it may have been present in a few resistant carriers from previously isolated tribes for a long time and was just recently transmitted to the cities by migration. There is evidence to support and dispute both theories, however, and it remains uncertain exactly when or how AIDS began in Africa. Although many theories also exist as to where AIDS began in Africa, most evidence points to the theory that it began somewhere in the region of East Central sub-Saharan Africa. Many sources also agree that AIDS probably began closer to the Great Lakes Region since the countries that contain or border these lakes are the countries in which the largest numbers of AIDS patients have been documented to date. From here, people infected with the HIV virus may have migrated into larger towns and cities located along major highway and waterway transportation routes. It is also believed that truck drivers and city prostitutes, who often migrate from city to city, have played a large role in the spread of the disease. Over time, the prominent social factors in some of the culture systems of sub-Saharan Africa, the pressure for high fertility and high reproductive rates, has caused many sub-Saharan African’s sexual attitude to evolve into one which finds it necessary to have an large number of sexual partners. This increased number of partners has lead to the tolerance of high levels of promiscuity, mainly commercialized forms. The possible transmission of the HIV virus increases with every new sexual act and new sexual partner. With this attitude, many assume that sub-Saharan Africans cannot help the fact that their likelihood of acquiring the disease is heightened. Frequenting prostitutes is another possible way in which sub-Saharan Africans increase their likelihood of acquiring the disease. Prostitution, being one of the most frequented forms of commercialized sex, makes it possible for a sexual encounter almost anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa and the possibility of passing any disease, including the HIV virus to someone from the opposite end of the continent. This attitude held by sub-Saharan Africans causes an increased number of sexual partners, causes tolerance for promiscuity and prostitution and increases the likelihood of transmission of the HIV virus. Programs need to be developed in which education is provided about the risks of these diseases.

One of the main reasons that the AIDS problem remains unresolved in sub-Saharan Africa is the numerous different cultural traditions and behaviors that exist toward sex. The cultures of this region are extremely diverse and include a wide variety of traditions dealing with sexual relationships, circumcision, and tribal healing methods that contribute to the spread of AIDS. In one Zambian culture, for example, it is tradition that a woman have sex with all of her husband’s male relatives when he dies. In another culture, young men are encouraged to have sexual relations with a number of eligible women during the time between puberty and marriage. In such cultural practices as these, there is little support for change to safer sex behaviors. Young people in Africa are growing up with the mind states of their predecessors, and the need for education on relationships, marriage, and safe sex needs to be addressed. Programs and interventions must be placed to better enable the people of Africa to understand the risk of their behaviors. One of the constant problems of battling AIDS in sub- Saharan Africa is the people it targets. In sub-Sarahan Africa homosexuality, IV drug use, and blood transfusions are not the highest risk of contracting HIV, but unprotected heterosexual intercourse spreads the virus more quickly. In turn making men, women, and children all equally suspectible to infection. Children are born knowing that there life span has been cut in half, and they accept the fact. While many around the world are getting the most developed treatments that are being discovered, people of Africa are only receiving generic drugs because of the high cost to the production of the best medicines. AZT, one of the newer AIDS drugs that prolongs life, costs between $500 to $1000 a month. While South Africa had previously passed a law that would allow it to make cheap, generic versions of these types of drugs, but drug companies worldwide took South Africa to court in a lawsuit saying that patents were being violated, profits were tumbling, and expensive research was being stifled. Moreover, after already being sued for use of just the generic drug, most people of Africa had not received the correct dosage or systematic observation for the medicine, which could result in the evolution to HIV resistance to drugs that may be administered in the future. Drugs must be available readily for the people of Africa in their fight against the growing rate of deaths. More money must be provided for prevention and health care.

Along with the financial, educational, and cultural changes needed to rid Africa of AIDS, government assistance is required to help organize the needs of its people. The epidemic’s greatest impact is likely to be felt by individuals living with HIV/AIDS, the health sector, and the poorest households. Governments can play an important role in mitigating these impacts, especially by prohibiting discrimination against HIV-infected persons in health care settings and in the workforce and by strengthening anti-poverty policies, but the most important lesson for governments to learn is that it is imperative to prevent the impacts of AIDS in the first place, through vigorous, effective interventions aimed at changing the behavior of those most likely to contract and spread infection. Today’s leaders can decide whether their children will grow up in a world where one out of four potential marriage partners is infected with a fatal sexually transmitted disease and AIDS patients occupy half of all hospital beds, leaving fewer beds for other patients. Prompt action today can prevent these impacts or help to reverse them.

National Interest
The U.S. involvement in the AIDS crisis in Africa has one goal alone and this is to reduce the human suffering and death of this epidemic. The issue of ethics comes into play when dealing with the fate of Africa. Is the U.S. going to allow the unnecessary death of millions of Africans when there are other people of other races getting the treatment needed just because their country can afford the “luxury?” Does the U.S. concern focus on money versus the life of an innocent child? More spending needs to be directed toward the African government, while interventions are placed on the education of human rights and disease control.

The AIDS epidemic, it’s been said, is no more an African problem than the Holocaust was a European problem. The challenge it poses to the West is moral. The proper response is dictated not only by self-interest, but also by selflessness. So say all the world’s great teachers, and every good heart: When people suffer, they must be soothed. Those who have much must give to those who have little.

Policy Options
Policy Option A
The first option may be to let the African government control their own epidemic, and to stay out of the issue at hand. This option would be devasting to the reduction of AIDS epidemic because the government in Africa can not possible afford the resources that it would take to rebuild a community without this disease. Without help from an outside source, the destructive pattern of the disease would continue to grow at an exponential rate until spreading rapidly throughout the entire nation and disrupting any type of political or global state.

Policy Option B
Another option would be to join forces with the Global Fund, and to only use these resources as the main source of financial support. Using this money may enable the production of cheap drugs or programs made to teach Africans the danger of unsafe intercourse and condom use. However the Global Fund program only has $1.5 billion in funding which must be divided to help over ninety countries. The program also splits the cost for the eradication of three different disease including malaria, tuberculosis, as well as AIDS/HIV. The cost of the production of the drugs for AIDS alone would exceed this amount, not only to mention the lack of support of medical supervisors and staff to administer these drugs.

Policy Option C
The last option that constitutes a combination of all possible options available makes it the best one. The project will be called the “AAA” or Action on Aids in Africa, and in alliance with the IMF, the World Bank, and the UN, the plan for eliminating the threat of AIDS in Africa will come to a close. Funding of $20 billion will be presented to the project over a five year initiative.

The goals of the plan are as follows:

· Every African living with HIV/AIDS should have access to lifesaving
antiretroviral therapy on or before December 2003.
· Every African pregnant woman should have access to life saving medicines that can reduce or elimate mother to child transmission of HIV on or before August 2003.
· Every African AIDS orphan should be in school and receive appropriate medical care on or before December 2003.
· The African nation should have enough resources to mount a credible information, education, and communication campaign against HIV transmission on or before August 2003.
· Every African country with five percent or more of its population living with
HIV/AIDS should have their debts cancelled and the savings channeled to
health and social programs on or before August 2003.

To conquer these goals, one-half of the funding will be provided toward treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS now. This treatment will include the most developed drug that may commonly be in practice among other parts of the world and will be offered from pharmaceutical companies at a lower rate per month for countries of national distress. A country shall be in national distress if over five percent of it’s population is infected with HIV/AIDS. The rate per month for the medicine will not exceed $350 a month.

Next, one third of the funding will be provided for the cost of prevention programs. These programs should also employ expert staff on the treatment of AIDS in poor countries while also providing funding for the start of intervention treatment centers. These will provide information on safe intercourse, along with provide information on condom use and abstinence.

The last of the funding will be geared toward the Cure With Water Act, this act shall state that all countries having been designated to receive such funds will be provided with clean water to rid off the chance of other diseases that may heighten the risk of having AIDS. Many of the drugs being used to treat such patients will require that the stomach be full of water, and the risk of water borne illnesses must be eradicated during this project.

With the help of the IMF, the AAA countries will receive assistance on help with rebuilding their states through aid administered in conjunction with the World Bank and other assistance programs such as UNAIDS and the Global Fund. Although a large increase in funding many points have been presented which if the case were presented about a problem of this stature ever happening in the U.S. that many would agree to it.

Policy Summary
Policy Option C is clearly the best option for treatment and prevention of AIDS in Africa. The global coalition is key to help eliminate the threat of AIDS in Africa of becoming the modern day Black Death. Increasing funding helps build a strong and effective preventive care force to slow the disease’s death toll, while education will provide knowledge of new cultural behaviors.

To achieve the most moral solution, the problem can not be ignored any longer. What must be done is clear, and there are no other ways to go around the problem. AIDS is here to stay unless the people do something about it. People can not be left to die, no matter what race, when there are the resources out there to help educate and prevent such an epidemic from ever happening.

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Posted inSample Research Proposals by Terence Hudson | Taggedfree HIV research proposals, HIV research paper, HIV research proposal, HIV research proposal example, sample HIV research proposal, sample research proposal, write HIV research proposal |

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